Grammar Translation Method
Language is taught by the grammar teachers and students memorize grammatical rules and a list of declensions and conjunctions. This is done usually in the first language and the learners would translate it in the target language. Accuracy was more stressed with the emphasis mainly in reading and writing with little attention to speaking and listening skills. This method is a Teacher dominated role and the learners are taking more passive role.
The Direct Method
In this method the actual language is presented and was selected for its usability in every day contests with strictly controlled structures. Correct pronunciation was insisted with more drilling of words. This method is good and revolutionary. But neglected due to some problems. One of which is that his method require, teachers should be Native or Near –Native speakers. At present the majority of English Teachers are Non-Native and not all are confident enough in their own Spoken English skills to be in the position to follow this method easily. Examinations are based on Proficiency in reading comprehension and writing skills are excluded from direct method.
Audio lingual Method
This language was developed for the purpose of transforming a person fluent in English language, particularly in the field of translations and interpreting. The principles behind this Audio Lingual came from behavioral psychology. Actually speaking the language is a set of habits and behavioral pattern which are modified by correct responses, like speaking and listening and this is presented in the training of the (L2) second language learners. The basis of input is taught by short dialogues and followed by drilling (repetitions). Language is heard and then memorized along with its correct pronunciations. Learners have a little and no influence over the topic of the lesson and as long as correct utterances are made. But it seems that no importance has been given for comprehension.
This is in contrast to audio Lingual method. In this method meaning have an absolute priority and the accuracy is secondary. Learners gain the knowledge through trial and error method. More responsibility is on both the learner and teacher. Learners have more beneficial learning environments within the class room. Reading and writing skills are considered as equal as important to the speaking and listening skills.
As per American University it is suggested that when teaching foreign languages to adult learners, we should replicate the method how we learnt our mother tongue. One of the main aspects is that we should allow the learner to input his new input at his own rate. We should not expect and pressurize all the learners to progress at the same rate. A learner will have a passive understanding before he use a new word. So comprehension should precede production. This is just happens to an infant, when he learns his first language. Some children grasp the words more quickly and some are late. Research shows that young children understand the language more than they use actively in every day conversation.
The Humanistic approach
This is one of the most exiting developments in the past years. This has been called as the Holistic vie of language learning / teaching. This method says to reappraise the way how the teacher behave / see with the learners and how the learner see / understand the teacher and the kind of activities goes on in the class room. It is suggested to the learners to take more responsibilities in the learning process. Learners should be given choices, that what they want and how they want to learn. The teacher and learner may negotiate the syllabus and agree the content of the syllabus, schedule of delivery, style and method of teaching. Learning is a vibrant and dynamic activity for the students, as it is involved throughout. The lesson material should be prepared in such a way that it should focus on our daily life situations, so as to add the human life dimensions. The teacher should behave with the students in a humanistic way and concern with the student’s wellbeing, not only with their academic progress, but a whole. Students are asked about their own thoughts. Feelings and emotions about hem and each other within the lesson activities and exercises. They are encouraged to choose the experiences of their own life and interests, so as to personalize the learning process.
We have seen different methods of teaching. We have different levels of learners. As we said every learner don’t have the same capacity of mind and concentrations of other learners. Learners are in different status. The teacher should be Pragmatic and eclectic in using the different methods of teaching which suits to a learner. A teacher is a competent teacher, who chooses a suitable path of learning and methodology, according to the understanding of the learner.
We can teach to an illiterate person. But we should know and adopt the correct methodology of teaching.
The key points to consider before we teach English abroad are:
- Know the level (education) of the learner.
- Know the mother tongue of the learner.
- Know the age of the learner.
- Know the English knowledge of the learner.
- Know the target level of the learner.
- Compare the English knowledge and the target level of the learner.
- Choose the methodologies of teaching and the starting point to start the training.
Source: Eduniche's Blog